Journal of Science and Sustainable Development <p><span style="color: #000000;"><strong>Journal of Science and Sustainable Development (JSSD)</strong> is an open access peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal published by Ambo University, Ethiopia, that provides rapid publication (bi-annually) of articles in all subject areas covering,but not limited to, Natural Sciences, Agriculture, Technology and Social Sciences. The journal welcomes submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance in scientific excellence.Authors are advised to strictly follow the AuthorsGuideline as a mere deviation from the basics of the Journal format can lead to automatic rejection of the manuscript without going in depth in to it.</span></p> Ambo University en-US Journal of Science and Sustainable Development 2304-2702 Phytochemical Profile and In-Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Lowland Honeys against Some Medically Important Pathogens from Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia <p><em>Variation in phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of honey varieties is mainly dependent on geographical, seasonal and botanical origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phytochemical profiles and in-vitro antibacterial activities of honey samples collected from lowlands of Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia. The major phytochemical classes were investigated using qualitative standard procedures. Different concentrations of each honey samples were tested for antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), E. coli O157:H7) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method in triplicates. The findings of this study revealed that most honey samples possessed bioactive components such as alkaloids, glycosides and flavonoids which attributed to the antibacterial effects against human pathogen. All honey samples showed no activities against P. aeruginosa at 25%, 50% and 75% concentrations of honey. The maximum inhibition zone (8.5 ± 4.8) against S. aureus was recorded at 25% concentration from Genda Hassen honey sample followed by Erer honey (7.5 ± 0.97). The lowest minimum inhibition concentration (6.25%) was obtained in Genda Hassen honey against E. coli O157:H7 followed by GHH and GIH (12.5%) against S. aureus. The Genda Hassen honey showed highest bactericidal activity against S. aureus at 12.5% and E. coli O157:H7 at 25% honey concentration. The Eastern Hararghe lowland honey samples had high antibacterial potency against some medically important pathogens. The source of samples could be resulted from plant diversity, geographical locations and seasonal variations. Therefore, it is recommended that honey study at different agro-ecological locations is vital to find medically valuable honey type.</em></p> Negussie Bussa Andarge Zelalem Tsegu Kiros Ararso Negari Copyright (c) 2022 Negussie Bussa, Andarge Zelalem, Tsegu Kiros, Ararso Negari 2023-12-05 2023-12-05 10 1 1 12 10.20372/au.jssd.10.1.2022.0354 Analysis of Tomato and Onion Production Efficiency in Ejersa Lafo District of West Shewa Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia <p><em>Increasing productivity and efficiency in agricultural production could be seen as an important step towards attaining food security. Hence, the study was conducted to identify factors affecting tomato and onion production efficiency in the Ejersa Lafo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia using cross-sectional data obtained from 145 randomly selected sample farm households, which was analyzed using data envelopment analysis and an econometric (Tobit) model. Accordingly, the average TE, AE, and EE of sampled households are 66.2%, 55.4%, and 36.7%, respectively. The tobit model confirmed that family size, total cultivated land and frequency of ploughing positively and significantly affected TE, while distance to the nearest market had a negative and significant effect on TE and the number of livestock owned. Frequency of ploughing and extension contact affected AE significantly and positively, while EE was significantly and positively affected by education level, family size, total cultivated land, frequency of ploughing and access to credit services. However, the distance to the nearest market significantly and negatively affected the EE level of tomato and onion producers. Based on the results gained, the study recommends that improving the above problem can increase farmers’ economic efficiency in the study area.</em></p> Gezahegn Alemayehu Birihanu Aman Rikitu Dassa Chala Hailu Husen Copyright (c) 2022 Aman Rikitu Dassa, Gezahegn Alemayehu Birihanu, Chala Hailu Husen 2023-12-05 2023-12-05 10 1 13 27 10.20372/au.jssd.10.1.2022.0357 Structure and Regeneration Status of Woody Plants in Jiga Bushe Forest, Jaldu District, Central Ethiopia <p><em>Ecological study was done on the structure and regeneration status of woody plants in Jiga Bushe Forest, Jaldu District, and Central Ethiopia. Data of woody plant species were collected using systematic sampling method by laying 9 transects and 50 quadrats each with 20 m x 20 m for trees. Inside the main quadrats, there are 5 m x 5 m sub-quadrats for shrubs, and 1 m x 1 m sub-quadrats for seedlings and saplings both for structural and regeneration status determination. Structural data like DBH, height, total density, basal area were analyzed in descriptive statistics. The result revealed that 64 woody plant species belong to 60 genera and 44 families were recorded. Trees had the highest composition followed by Shrubs and lianas. The largest species rich families were Fabaceae, followed by Rosaceae, Acanthaceae and Asteraceaea. Generally, both diameter and height class distributions of the population in the Jiga Bushe Forest exhibited inverted J-shape. The total density and basal area of woody plant species in the study area were 1,272 ha<sup>-1</sup> and 25.6 m<sup>2 </sup>ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively. Analysis of the importance value index indicated that Olinia rochetiana had the highest value (17.69). Regeneration status of the forest based on the number of seedlings, saplings and mature trees were in good condition.</em></p> Birhanu Kebede Dereje Ararsa Copyright (c) 2022 Birhanu Kebede, Dereje Ararsa 2023-12-05 2023-12-05 10 1 28 44 10.20372/au.jssd.10.1.2022.0358 Assessment of Indigenous Rhizobia in faba bean (Vicia faba l.) Soils of Kersa Malima District Southwest Shoa Zone of Oromia, Ethiopia <p><em>Estimation of the indigenous rhizobia population plays a great role to determine the abundance of rhizobia in the soil and for the need of inoculation. This research paper aimed to assess the population of rhizobia nodulating faba bean in relation to cropping history and soil properties in fababean producing areas of Kersa Malima Districts. Fifteen composite soil samples were collected at the depth of 0-20cm from district`s and the most probable number was used to count rhizobia and plant infection method. The soil rhizobia population was ranged from 0.357*102-9.324*103 cells/g of dry soil. Farm fields with history of legumes cultivation had the highest rhizobia population abundance than cereal-cereal-rotation. Soil pH, organic carbon and available phosphorus influenced soil rhizobia abundance. The study revealed that the land slope influence was not observed at all sites on soil rhizobia population size. Therefore, the present study showed variation in indigenous rhizobia population was observed from soils of Kersa Malima district.</em></p> Gezahegn Tamiru Achalu chimdi Yifru Abera Copyright (c) 2022 Acahlu chimdi, Gezahegn Tamiru, Yifru Abera 2023-12-05 2023-12-05 10 1 45 54 10.20372/au.jssd.10.1.2022.0364 Determinants of Inorganic Fertilizer Use Intensity on Cereal Crop among Smallholder Farmers: The Case of Toke Kutaye District, West Shewa Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia <p><em>This study was aimed at analyzing determinants of inorganic fertilizer use intensity on cereal crops among smallholder farmers in Toke Kutaye District, West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. Cross-sectional data were collected from 156 respondents using two-stage random sampling methods. Data analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics and the double hurdle model. The result of the first hurdle reveals that out of twelve explanatory variables, sex, education, off-farm income, land size, and improved seed were determined positively, whereas age and distance from the nearest market determined smallholders' use of inorganic fertilizer negatively. The results of the second stage of the double hurdle model indicate that, out of twelve explanatory variables, sex, family size, and land size positively affected the extent (intensity) of inorganic fertilizer use, whereas age and distance of the household from the nearest market negatively affected the intensity of use. Therefore, these results implied that there is room to increase the intensity of inorganic fertilizer use in cereal crop production. Hence, farmers' capacity to purchase this input, from lower income farmers to model farmers, should be acknowledged, and it should be designed to address those who have no ability to use inorganic fertilizer on their own farms through diverse development interventions</em></p> Abera Efa Aman Rikitu Copyright (c) 2022 Aman Rikitu, Abera Efa 2023-12-05 2023-12-05 10 1 55 68 10.20372/au.jssd.10.1.2022.0376 Determinants of Adoption of Improved Forage and Its Impacts on Income of Smallholder Farmers in Southwest Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia <p><em>Improved forage is an important livestock feeding. However, adoption and intensity of improved forage in Ethiopia were low. Also, it causes for low level of income. Using cross-sectional data collected from 351 livestock producers in Southwest showa zone we examined the variables that affect the adoption of improved forage and its impacts on household income. Descriptive statistics and econometric models were employed for this study. The average lands allocated by adopters were 0.016hectares. Nine explanatory variables showed statistically significant differences between adopter and non-adopter of improved forage. The Heckman two-stage model analyses indicate that the adoption is significantly influenced by age, education, farm income, frequency of extension contact, access to training, access to credit, family size and the availability of communal grazing land whereas frequency of extension contact, livestock holding, sex, educational, and access to training were statistically significant factors in affecting the adoption intensity of improved forage. According to the PSM model adopters of the improved forage makes on average 2942.652 Ethiopian Birr/year more incomes than non-adopters. The result of this study indicates that a low adoption rate and several factors that influence adoptions in general. Adoption of improved forage is important since it boosts adopters' income and is a solution for the shortage of feed for livestock which now frequently rises. The findings show that smallholder livestock producers should be encouraged to adopt improved forage&nbsp;at a greater rate in order to raise their profitability. </em></p> Mideksa Dabessa Jima Dagaga Yohannis Keterew Copyright (c) 2022 Mideksa Dabessa, Jima Dagaga , Yohannis Keterew 2023-12-05 2023-12-05 10 1 69 87 10.20372/au.jssd.10.1.2022.0368