Journal of Science and Sustainable Development <p><span style="color: #000000;"><strong>Journal of Science and Sustainable Development (JSSD)</strong> is an open access peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal published by Ambo University, Ethiopia, that provides rapid publication (bi-annually) of articles in all subject areas covering,but not limited to, Natural Sciences, Agriculture, Technology and Social Sciences. The journal welcomes submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance in scientific excellence.Authors are advised to strictly follow the AuthorsGuideline as a mere deviation from the basics of the Journal format can lead to automatic rejection of the manuscript without going in depth in to it.</span></p> Ambo University en-US Journal of Science and Sustainable Development 2304-2702 Communicating Local Economic Development Approach for Poverty Alleviation in Ambo Town, West Shewa, Oromia, Ethiopia <p style="text-align: justify;">Local Economic development as approach to development is a prominent strategy to tackle unemployment and poverty in urban areas. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess and communicate the extent to which municipal Local Economic development initiatives contribute towards improving the livelihood of communities in Ambo Town for sustainable local economic development. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed in this study. Accordingly, data were collected from 152 participants through questionnaire, interview and observation; and analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis and description. The study revealed that local economic development has had a marginal impact on poverty alleviation due to a myriad of factors which reinforce and interact with each other thereby trapping entrepreneurs and residents in poverty. Local economic development approach, in most cases, to the development project planning and decision makings are in top-down which do not target all the segments of the poor in a meaningful way. Local economic development serves as an important strategy to boost local economies to address the high levels of poverty, unemployment and inequalities facing majority population. Participatory development process is crucial to properly translate the local economic development policy into meaningful practice so that there is a significant impact on alleviating poverty program.</p> Mengistu Tulu Workneh Abebe Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 8 2 1 9 10.20372/au.jssd.8.2.2020.0144 Optimal Breast Feeding Practice and Associated Factors among Mothers of Children aged 6-23 months in Dandi District, West Shewa, Ethiopia <p style="text-align: justify;">Optimal feeding of infants and young children means exclusive breastfeeding from birth to about six months, followed by an introduction of complementary foods drawn from the local diet at about six months. However, the status of optimum breastfeeding practice in low-income countries like Ethiopia varies from place to place. The aim of this study was to assess optimum breastfeeding practice and associated factors among mothers of children aged 6-23 months in the study area. The study was conducted at Ginchi Town, Dandi District, West Shoa Zone Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1-10, 2018 G.C. Systematic random sampling followed by a Simple random sampling technique was used to reach a study subject. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were coded and entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 21 for further analyses. Binary logistic regression was used to check the association between dependent and independent variables. In multivariate logistic regression, those variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 were selected as factors associated with optimal breastfeeding. A total of 216 mothers of children aged 6-23months were voluntarily responded, making a response rate of 100%. This study found that 81.9% of mothers have practiced optimum breastfeeding practice. There was a significant association between monthly income and optimum breastfeeding. Mothers who had a monthly income of greater than &gt;1000birr were less likely to practice optimum breastfeeding as compared to mothers who had a monthly income of &lt;500birr (AOR = 0.332, 95% CI: 0.122 - 0.901, p-value &lt; 0.05). Optimum breastfeeding practice among the study subjects in the study area was below widely accepted "Universal coverage" of 90%. Therefore the town and district Health office should work to enhance optimum breastfeeding practice.</p> Kefyalew Taye Gutu Belay Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 8 2 10 18 10.20372/au.jssd.8.2.2020.0145 Assessing Crop Response to Zinc Fertilization: a Meta-Analysis <p style="text-align: justify;">Several studies on effects of Zinc fertilization on cereals yield and their Zinc content on soils with various soil properties and using different Zn fertilization strategies have been conducted. Nevertheless, studies that summarized the studies in the form of meta-analysis as to what extent the crop Zn content and grain yield could be improved as result of Zn fertilization were limited. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the response of cereal crops to Zinc fertilization across selected soil properties and Zinc fertilization startegies from large number of published studies through a meta-analysis. Fourty-two field experiments, from 27 peer-reviewed published articles were included in the analysis. MetaWin v 2.1 was used for the analysis and effect sizes estimated by using the natural logarithm of response ratio method. Cumulative analyses of each study showed a positive and significant effect of Zn fertilization over no Zn fertilization on Zn content and grain yield of agricultural crops. The average Zn content and grain yield of crops across studies is found to be 12.6; 20.4 mg/kg, and 3526; 4370kg/ha, respectively for no Zn vs Zn applied treatments; corresponding to approx. 62% and 24% increase in Zn content and grain yield as result of Zn application. In general, in Zn deficient areas, Zn biofortification through Zn fertilization of the soils can be used to improve crop Zn content and grain yield significantly. Moreover, other factors such as application methods, soil pH, SOM, and P should be managed integratively for successful Zinc biofortification.</p> Zana Zate Zewdneh Olika Fufa Bikila Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 8 2 19 33 10.20372/au.jssd.8.2.2020.0146 Genetic divergence among Ethiopian linseed (Linumusitatissimum L ) genotypes <p style="text-align: justify;">Knowledge of genetic divergence of traits in any crop population is important for the continued improvement of the crop as well as for its development in the agricultural system. The study was designed to assess genetic diversity of traits in linseed (Linumusitatissimum L) genotypes evaluated at Ambo University Gudar campus during 2019 cropping season. The experiment was conducted using simple lattice design with two replications consisted fifty six genotypes. Using Euclidean distance value (D2) the studied genotypes were grouped into seven different clusters. Among the clusters cluster III and IV consisted largest number of genotypes while cluster VI and VII consisted small number of genotypes. Maximum inter cluster genetic divergence (D=71.64) was revealed between cluster II and VI, while minimum genetic divergence (D=19.74) was manifested between cluster V and VI. Whereas maximum (11.85) intra clusters distance was manifested for cluster V, while minimum (7.14) intra cluster was revealed for cluster VII. Genotypes in cluster II revealed highest mean value for seed yield per hectare. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first four principal components accounted for 75.96 of the total variation, of which nearly 53.08 % was contributed by the first two principal components (PCA1 and PCA2). Therefore the result of this study suggests existence of genetic divergence for seed yield and other agronomic traits in the studied linseed genotype, which should be exploited in linseed breeding program.</p> Nedi Terfa Gemechu Gudeta Nepir Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 8 2 34 42 10.20372/au.jssd.8.2.2020.0147 Evaluation of Insecticides on Management of some Sucking Insect Pests in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in West Shoa Zone, Toke kutaye District, Ethiopia <p style="text-align: justify;">Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), which belongs to family Solanaceae, is one of the most popular and cost-effective vegetables for fresh consumption and processing. Certain sucking insects viz., thrips, whiteflies and aphids cause severe damage to crop by transmitting virus disease rather than direct feeding, particularly to the tomato plants. The present study was carried out in RCBD with four replications in open farmer’s fields by irrigation water for the period from October to March 2018/2019 for two consecutive years. Two new insecticides Sivanto Energy EC 85 and Delta 2.5 E.C with the doses of the former and later, 800, 1000 &amp; 1200ml-1ha and 350, 400 &amp; 450ml-1ha respectively; and Diazinon 60 E.C at 1000ml-1ha were tested for their efficacy against sucking insect pests on tomatoes. Percent efficacy recorded after 48 hours of each spray in the fields was significantly affected by the dose applied. The percent efficacy obtained by Sivanto Energy EC 85 and Delta 2.5% E.C at the highest doses proved to be the most effective and gave better efficacy against whiteflies, thrips and aphids. Therefore, both insecticides can be used for the management of sucking pests (whitefly, thrips, and aphid) on tomato crops in the field.</p> Tadele Shiberu Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 8 2 43 49 10.20372/au.jssd.8.2.2020.0148 Effects of Blended and Urea Fertilizer Rate on Yield and Yield Components of Maize in Ultisols of Liben Jawi District <p style="text-align: justify;">Maize is a major staple crop grown and widely consumed in western Ethiopia but it is low due to declining soil fertility and requires application of high fertilizer for optimum production. A field experiment was carried out on farmers’ field to study the effect of blended NPSB and urea fertilizer rate on yield and yield components, and economics of highland maize for two consecutive cropping seasons on Ultisol of Liben Jawi district. Three rates of nitrogen (150 250 and 350 kg urea ha-1) and four rates of blended NPSB (150, 200, 250 and 300 kg NPSB ha-1) were combined in factorial arrangement forming 12 treatments and tested with negative control and recommended (119/69 kg NP ha-1). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Combined application of blended NPSB and Urea was significantly affected mean yield and yield components of maize. Significantly higher biomass and grain yield of maize were obtained with application of higher nitrogen and blended NPSB fertilizer rate. Higher mean dry biomass yield of 21333 kg ha-1 and grain yield of 6975 kg ha-1 of maize was obtained with application of 350/300 kg urea/NPSB ha-1 fertilizer rate. Application of 250/250 kg urea/NPSB ha-1 gave net return of EB 44216 and higher marginal rate return of 2036 % for highland maize production. Therefore, application of 250/250 kg urea/NPSB ha-1 fertilizer rate was recommended for highland maize production and economic return in Ultisol of Liben Jawi and similar agroecologies.</p> Tolera Abera Buzayehu Tola Tolcha Tufa Adane Adugna Hirpa Legesse Tesfaye Midega Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 8 2 50 61 10.20372/au.jssd.8.2.2020.0149 Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Linseed (Linum Usitatissimum L.) Varieties in Welmera District, Central Highland of Ethiopia <p style="text-align: justify;">Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the most important oilseed crop in the central highlands of Ethiopia. However, poor soil fertility management and lack of improved varieties affect its seed yield and oil quality. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer rates on yield, and oil quality of linseed varieties in Welmera district. The experiment was laid out in a randomized completed block design with three replications. The treatments were factorial combinations of three linseed varieties (Bekoji-14, Jeldu, and Kulumsa-1) and five rates of Nitrogen (0, 11.5, 23.0, 34.5, and 46.0 kg N ha-1). The analysis of variance showed that the main effect nitrogen and varieties significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected seed and oil yields, oil content, and fatty acid compositions of linseed. The maximum seed yield (1508 kg ha-1) and oil yield (604.4 Lt ha-1) were recorded from 46 kg N ha-1 with Jeldu variety; while the minimum seed yield (782 kg ha-1) and oil yield (445.8 lt ha-1) were obtained from the control treatment with Bokoji-14 variety. The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids content (linolenic 56.24, oleic 19.43, and linoleic 14.37%) and the optimal range of saturated fatty acids (palmitic 5.82 and stearic 4.89%) were recorded from 46 kg N ha-1 treatment. Moreover, the partial budget analysis also indicated that the maximum net benefit 36,865birr ha-1 with MRR 1738% was obtained from 46 kg N ha-1. Therefore, farmers in the study area can be advised to use Juldu variety with 46 kg N ha-1 for better seed and oil yields with optimal fatty acid composition.</p> Alemu Dilenssie Temesgen Desalegn Habtamu Ashagre Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 8 2 62 73 10.20372/au.jssd.8.2.2020.0150 Evaluations of Garlic Varieties and Fungicides for the Management of White Rot (Sclerotium cepivorum Berk.) in West Showa, Ethiopia <p style="text-align: justify;">Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is the second most widely cultivated vegetables next to onion in Ethiopia and mainly produced for its medicinal and nutritional purpose white rot caused by a soil borne fungus (Sclerotium cepivorum Berk.) is a major production threat of garlic where ever the crop is grown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of fungicides, and garlic varieties against garlic white rot in West Shewa, Ethiopia. The field experiment was conducted at Ambo University, Gudar campus experimental field in 2018/2019 cropping season, arranged in 5 x 3 factorial treatment combination of five varieties namely Holeta, Chefe, Tseday (G-493), kuriftu and local cultiver (as check) and two fungicides namely Pro-seed plus 63 WS and Tebuconazole (Natura 250 EW) along with the untreated control plots in randomized complete block design with three replications. Garlic cloves were treated using fungicides before planting. A total of fifteen treatments were evaluated per replication. Two fungicides were effective in reducing the disease epidemics and improving garlic yield over untreated plots. However, among fungicides used, plots treated with Pro-seed plus was the most effective in reducing the disease epidemics and gave better yield advantage. Pro-seed plus 63 Ws treated plots 57.12 %, 35 % and 64.25 % reduced initial, final incidence and final severity was recorded respectively as compared to untreated plots. The results showed significantly highest marketable yield was recorded from Tseday varieties treated with Pro-seed plus 63 WS (3.047t ha-1) followed by Kuriftu varieties treated with the same fungicides (2.973t ha-1) compared to the untreated control plots. Significantly, higher net profit was obtained from Pro-seed plus 63WS treated varieties compared to Tebuconazole and untreated control plots. Among the garlic varieties, Tseday (G-493) was promising in reducing the disease epidemics and gave better total and marketable bulb yield. Further research should be conducted with the same varieties combinations with fungicides against white rot under multi locations and in different seasons.</p> Motuma Gemechu Thangavel Selvaraj Teshale Jifara Amsalu Abera Copyright (c) 2020 Author(s) 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 8 2 74 84 10.20372/au.jssd.8.2.2020.0151