Journal of Science and Sustainable Development <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #000000;"><strong>Journal of Science and Sustainable Development (JSSD)</strong> is an open access peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal published by Ambo University, Ethiopia, that provides rapid publication (bi-annually) of articles in all subject areas covering,but not limited to, Natural Sciences, Agriculture, Technology and Social Sciences. The journal welcomes submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance in scientific excellence.Authors are advised to strictly follow the AuthorsGuideline as a mere deviation from the basics of the Journal format can lead to automatic rejection of the manuscript without going in depth in to it.</span></p> Ambo University en-US Journal of Science and Sustainable Development 2304-2702 Factors Influencing Growth of Micro and Small Enterprises: case of Ambo, Bako, Gedo and Ginchi Towns Oromia, Ethiopia; Logistic Regression Analysis <p style="text-align: justify;">As part of the industrial sector, micro and small enterprises (MSEs) are increasingly becoming popular and important in the Ethiopian economy as they would play a decisive role in contributing to employment generation, poverty reduction and the opening of wider distribution of wealth and opportunities. The main objective of the study was to identify factors that influence growth of micro and small enterprise in Ambo, Bako, Gedo and Ginchi towns. These towns were selected from West Shoa Zone towns depending on greatly inhabited enterprises. Thus, a sample of 294 micro and small enterprises was determined and proportionally allocated to each area or town. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a list of micro and small enterprises from each category that formed representative sample. Data were collected using questionnaire then SPSS software employed to analyze. The study employed Chi-square technique to test associations between dependent and explanatory variables. We have implemented logistic regression to evaluating the probability of growth of MSEs. The descriptive analysis revealed from a total of 309 enterprises 105 (34%) were found to be growing while the remaining 204 (66%) did not. Logistic regression model result indicated that among the variables sex, marital status, age, educational attainment of the manager/owner, prior experience of the manager/owner, access to credit and training, major activity (sectors), accesses to market linkage, infrastructures were selected as predictive variables. MSEs whose manager /owner attained high education and training, more experienced prior, those engaged in manufacturing and construction sectors, who had get more accesses to credit, market linkage and adequate infrastructures were performed better growth. Hence, concerned government officials, and other economic development players have to work in hand in the area of training, availability of finance, and formation and business sectors of MSEs in the country.</p> Reta Lemessa Sori Tefera Senahara Korsa Copyright (c) 2019 Author(s) 2019-01-09 2019-01-09 7 1 32 42 10.20372/au.jssd.7.1.2019.094 Challenges and Opportunities of Developing Students’ Communicative Competence: A Case of Grade 12 Students in Each of the Selected Schools from the Three Closest Zones to Mizan Town <p style="text-align: justify;">The main objective of this study was to investigate the challenges and opportunities of developing students’ communicative competence. To this end, a total of three schools from three different zones such as Sheka, Bench-Maji and Kafa were selected as a study area. To gather the valuable information from the subjects, two instruments, a test for students and questionnaires for both teachers and students were used. To select the sample subjects, purposive sampling and systematic sampling techniques were used for teachers and students, respectively. The result of the study has shown that the students’ communicative competence that was inferred from their performance was an “average” or it was in “good” scale. Furthermore, the test result showed that the students mean score value of their communicative competence is 53.15 with the standard deviation of 9.8 from the result, and the students’ linguistic competence is the least and below average value while the students’ discourse competence and strategic competence were medium. The students’ sociolinguistic competence was higher than average. However, the students and teachers’ responses showed that lack of practice in all macro language skills, students’ shyness and being passive, lack of exposure to English speakers, lack of technology assisted language learning, first language dominance and lack of interest were the main challenges to the development of students’ communicative competence. The finding also indicated that students have very limited number of opportunities such as only those related to teachers and textbooks. Finally, based on the results obtained, EFL teachers should have clear understanding about goals of language teaching and CLT principles’ implementation especially in teaching grammar inductively and in using language for meaningful communication and the ministry of education should provide necessaryperiodic trainings for EFL teachers on CLT principle implementations to improve the students’ communicative competence.</p> Belay Girma Copyright (c) 2019 Author(s) 2019-01-09 2019-01-09 7 1 43 52 10.20372/au.jssd.7.1.2019.095 Determinants of Innovative Success: A study of Small to Medium Enterprises in Oromia Zone Surrounding Finfinne <p style="text-align: justify;">The main purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of innovative success of small to medium enterprises in Ethiopia. A qualitative research approach was employed in the investigation. Instruments used to collect data were semi-structured interviews. Accordingly, through face-to-face interviews with 49 owners/managers of small to medium enterprises data were collected. With this study, many determinant factors of product innovative success were identified. However, the three strategic types; namely entrepreneurial orientation, market information processing and network ties were identified as the highly important while experience of workers and education levels of owners/managers of small firms were also mentioned as other factors. Also, the importance of market information utilization and network ties with other enterprises have been great but contributions of the so-called technology-issuing information channels were not significantly used by many enterprises. But, until now, the market information was not as much formally acquired and utilized by many small firms to produce a planning, competitor analysis, internal analysis and for product innovation. Therefore, recommend as all the information together should be used to produce a new product that help for product innovation success.</p> Chalchissa Amentie Kero Bertrand Sogbossi Copyright (c) 2019 Author(s) 2019-01-09 2019-01-09 7 1 53 65 10.20372/au.jssd.7.1.2019.096 Agronomic Performance of Food Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Varieties and Their Response to Seed Rate at Elfeta District, West Showa Zone, Oromia National Regional State <p style="text-align: justify;">Barley is one of the most important, economically valuable and widely used cereal crops in Ethiopia. However, barley yield and productivity is constrained by lack of improved varieties, use of unimproved production packages among which seed rate is major one. Hence, an experiment was conducted to identify better performing food barley variety and determine the optimal seed rate at Elfeta district of West Showa Zone of Oromia National Regional State in 2017 main cropping season. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments were factorial combination of three improved (Cross41/98, HB19/65, HB19/66 varieties) and one local cultivar, and four seed rates (75, 100, 125 and 150 kg ha-1). The result of the study revealed that food barley varieties significantly differ in phonological parameters, such as days to 90% heading, grain filling period, and days to 90% maturity. Yield and yield components of barley including plant height, spike length, thousand seed weight and harvest index were significantly (p&lt;0.01) influenced by the main effect of variety and seed rate. However, total number of tillers, number of effective tillers, grains per spike, and grain, straw, and biomass yields were significantly (p&lt;0.01) influenced by interaction effect of variety and seed rate. Variety HB19/66 and seed rate of 125 kg ha-1gave significantly high grain yield (6.23 tons ha-1). The highest net benefit of ETB 38,923 ha-1 with marginal rate of return of 933% and value to cost ratio of ETB 27 per unit investment was obtained from use of 125 kg ha-1 seeding rate for food barley. Therefore, use of HB19/66 variety with 125 kg ha-1 seeding rate is profitable and recommended to the study area.</p> Teferi Tolesa Habtamu Ashagre Tolera Abera Copyright (c) 2019 Author(s) 2019-01-08 2019-01-08 7 1 20 31 10.20372/au.jssd.7.1.2019.093 Biochemical Composition of Green Coffee Beans as Geographic Indication in Ethiopian Specialty Coffees <p style="text-align: justify;">Biochemical composition of green coffee beans can be used as reliable geographical indicators to characterize quality. No efforts have been made in Ethiopia to elucidate the biochemical composition of green coffees based on geographical origin. The objective of this research was to determine the biochemical composition of green coffee beans in Ethiopia based on location. Green coffee beans were obtained from three replicated sites per farm from a total of 24 farms in south-western (SW), western (W), southern (S), north-western (NW) and eastern (E) major coffee growing regions of Ethiopia. Handpicked coffee cherries at peak maturity were used for the study during the 2010/2011 growing season. The study followed a multistage purposive random sampling method in a nested design. The results of the study revealed that location significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected the values of caffeine, 5-CQA (5-Caffeoylquinic acid), Feruloylquinic acids (FQA), 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acids (3,4-DCQA) and 4,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acids (4,5-DCQA). Green coffee bean composition of 4-CQA (4-Caffeoylquinic acid), 5-CQA, 4,5-DCQA, caffeine, FQA, and 3-CQA in a descending order of importance contributed much to separate coffees originating from the eastern region distinctly from those originating from both the western and southern regions. However, 4-CQA, 3-CQA (3-Caffeoylquinic acid), FQA, 4,5-DCQA, 5-CQA, and caffeine in their descending order of importance contributed much to separate coffees originating from the south-western region from those originating from both the southern and north-western regions. However, a repeated and an integrated study is sought to come to a comprehensive conclusion and recommendation.</p> Adugnaw Mintesnot Nigussie Dechassa Copyright (c) 2019 Author(s) 2019-01-07 2019-01-07 7 1 1 9 10.20372/au.jssd.7.1.2019.091 Value Chain Analysis of Barely: A Case of Ambo District, West Showa Zone of Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia <p style="text-align: justify;">Though barley value chains analysis assists governmental institutions and non-government organizations (NGOs) to assess their activities and redesign their operations, there has been no adequate study in Ambo district. Thus, this study aimed to analyze barley market value chain and identify determinants of the quantity of barley supply. The data were gathered from 132 randomly selected households, 20 traders and 4 input suppliers. Both descriptive statistics and econometric model were used for data analysis. The study revealed that the highest value added in barley value chains were about Birr 15.5/quintal. Rural assemblers in barley value chain obtained the highest share of gross profit next to producers. The Tobit regression estimator also revealed that age of the household, education of the household head, quantity of barley produced, use of fertilizer, improved seed used, and extension contact were significantly influencing the quantity of barley market supply. There was also no barley processor actor or that uses barley as a raw material in the barley value chain. Therefore, there is a need to promote agro-processors to be involved in barley processing and marketing.</p> Alemayehu Ekuba Wolteji Chala Badassa Workneh Abebe Copyright (c) 2019 Author(s) 2019-01-07 2019-01-07 7 1 10 19 10.20372/au.jssd.7.1.2019.092 Selected Nutritional Values and Physicochemical Properties of Traditionally Prepared Ethiopian Fresh Butter Intended for Direct Consumption <p style="text-align: justify;">The level of selected nutritional values, physicochemical properties and metal contents of butter samples collected from Dire Enchini and Ejere Districts in West Showa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia have been investigated to ensure food safety. Properly optimized sample preparation methods and calibrated and verified analytical procedures have been employed for the analysis. The result of the study indicated that, the butter sample collected from Dire Enchini district have shown average ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate and solid not fat contents of 0.10, 82.73, 2.32, 1.18 and 4.45 %, respectively, while the corresponding values for butter sample from Ejere district were 0.13, 84.71, 1.87, 0.86 and 2.19 %, respectively. The results showed there was significant differences in fat, crude protein and solid-not-fat contents of butter from the two districts. The determined physicochemical properties of butter samples from Dire Enchini have shown the average moisture (%), Melting point (℃), Free fatty acids (as oleic) (%), titratable acidity (butyric acid) (%), peroxide value (meq/ kg), Iodine value &nbsp;&nbsp;(I2g /100g), saponification value (mg KOH/ g) and cholesterol in butter (mg/ 100 g) contents of &nbsp;12.82, 34.5-35.40, &nbsp;0.82, &nbsp;0.28, 0.48, 3.76, &nbsp;95.3 &nbsp;and184.13±12.19, &nbsp;respectively, &nbsp;while the corresponding values for butter sample obtained from Ejere were 11.77, 35.0-35.70, 0.62, 0.23, 0.41, 3.97, 103 and 280.88, respectively. The optimized wet digestion method for Butter sample analysis was found effective for all of the minerals as it was evaluated through the recovery experiment and a good percentage recovery range from 91 – 100 % was obtained with %RSD ≤ 12 for the minerals analyzed. The average levels of metals investigated followed the order of K &gt; Ca &gt; Na &gt; Mg &gt; Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Cu &gt;Mn (mg/ Kg) in Butter sample from Dirre Enchini district. Similar order was obtained in butter sample from Ejere, except Cu &gt; Zn. The concentrations of the metals, nutritional value and Physicochemical property of butter were found to be in a good agreement with the international standards and indicating no risk exposure of using the butter from the investigated areas.</p> Shitaye Bekele Borena Alemayehu Abebaw Leta Danno Bayissa Copyright (c) 2018 Author(s) 2018-07-05 2018-07-05 7 1 37 50 10.20372/au.jssd.6.2.2018.088 Investigation and chemical composition of plants used as anti-termite infestation and repellant in eastern Tigray, Ethiopia <p style="text-align: justify;">Development of insect resistance to synthetic chemical, the high operational cost, environmental pollution, toxicity to humans and harmful effect on non-target organisms have&nbsp;created&nbsp;the&nbsp;need&nbsp;for&nbsp;developing&nbsp;alternative&nbsp;approaches&nbsp;to&nbsp;control&nbsp;insect&nbsp;pest.&nbsp;Botanical survey and extraction of top three plants was conducted to identify the plants used against termites’&nbsp;infestation&nbsp;and&nbsp;to&nbsp;screen&nbsp;chemical&nbsp;composition.&nbsp;The&nbsp;present&nbsp;research&nbsp;reports&nbsp;a&nbsp;total 15&nbsp;plants&nbsp;used&nbsp;to&nbsp;control&nbsp;termites’&nbsp;infestation&nbsp;as&nbsp;the&nbsp;information&nbsp;collected&nbsp;and&nbsp;recorded&nbsp;from the&nbsp;study&nbsp;area&nbsp;(table-2).&nbsp;Phytochemical&nbsp;analysis&nbsp;was&nbsp;conducted&nbsp;for&nbsp;top&nbsp;three&nbsp;plants&nbsp;depends on informants’ ideas and extracted by Maceration with acetone (Nicotiana glauca Graham, Euphorbia&nbsp;cactus&nbsp;Boiss&nbsp;and&nbsp;Aloe&nbsp;vera&nbsp;L)&nbsp;showed&nbsp;that&nbsp;presence&nbsp;of&nbsp;various&nbsp;active&nbsp;ingredients (table-5). The highest repellency was induced by positive control called diazinon (98.33%). Acetone&nbsp;extract&nbsp;of&nbsp;Nicotiana&nbsp;glauca&nbsp;Graham&nbsp;was&nbsp;found&nbsp;to&nbsp;be&nbsp;more&nbsp;repellency&nbsp;at&nbsp;1.00gm/mL (90.48%) at all concentrations than Euphorbia cactus followed by Aloevera L however, no repellence&nbsp;was&nbsp;observed&nbsp;for&nbsp;negative&nbsp;untreated&nbsp;control.&nbsp;Acetone&nbsp;extract&nbsp;of Nicotiana&nbsp;glauca Graham&nbsp;test&nbsp;has&nbsp;shown&nbsp;best&nbsp;level&nbsp;of&nbsp;mortality&nbsp;than Euphorbia&nbsp;cactus&nbsp;Boiss&nbsp;and&nbsp;Aloe&nbsp;vera&nbsp;L extracts.</p> Shilashi Badasa Teklay Mezgebe Yemane Tilahun Copyright (c) 2018 Author(s) 2018-07-05 2018-07-05 7 1 51 61 10.20372/au.jssd.6.2.2018.089 Factors Influencing Indigenous Knowledge of Rangeland Management Practices in Borana Pastoral Areas, Southern Ethiopia <p style="text-align: justify;">In most pastoral areas of Ethiopia, rangelands have traditionally been managed by customary institutions, especially in Borana but with the start of various pressures, this management system is increasingly undermined and the interventions ended up with little success story but more of in favor of environmental degradations. Looking into indigenous rangeland management practices of pastoral community is a useful way to develop sustainable rangeland productivity. Rangeland plays an essential role in the livelihood activities of Ethiopian pastoralists as well as Ethiopian economy. Numerous researches have been done on rangeland management practices, but little study has been done with respect to the determinants of indigenous rangeland management in specific social, economic and ecological context. In this case, the aim of the study was to assess the&nbsp;determinants&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;indigenous&nbsp;rangeland&nbsp;management&nbsp;practices&nbsp;of&nbsp;pastoral&nbsp;communities&nbsp;and assess&nbsp;perception&nbsp;of&nbsp;pastoral&nbsp;households&nbsp;towards&nbsp;the&nbsp;attributing&nbsp;causes&nbsp;of&nbsp;rangeland&nbsp;degradation in&nbsp;Borana.&nbsp;The&nbsp;study&nbsp;employed&nbsp;descriptive&nbsp;and&nbsp;inferential&nbsp;statistical&nbsp;methods&nbsp;to&nbsp;analyze&nbsp;the&nbsp;data. The findings indicate&nbsp; that the indigenous practice accurately reflects the productivity of the rangeland&nbsp;since&nbsp;the&nbsp;Borana&nbsp;area&nbsp;is&nbsp;unpredictable&nbsp;environment&nbsp;and&nbsp;victim&nbsp;for&nbsp;severe&nbsp;drought&nbsp;every year. The results of binary logit regression showed that a unit increase in age of the household head,&nbsp;the&nbsp;odds&nbsp;ratio&nbsp;in&nbsp;favor&nbsp;of&nbsp;practicing&nbsp;in&nbsp;traditional&nbsp;rangelands&nbsp;management&nbsp;increase&nbsp;by 1.096.&nbsp;Holding&nbsp;other&nbsp;variables&nbsp;constant,&nbsp;a&nbsp;unit&nbsp;increase&nbsp;in&nbsp;cultivated&nbsp;farm&nbsp;size&nbsp;would&nbsp;decrease&nbsp;the odds ratio in favor of practicing traditional management by a factor of 0.618. In Borana area, grazing land and water resources are jointly handled. Hence, privately owned grazing land and water points disturb patterns of mobility in a way grazing land use becomes inefficient as&nbsp;grazing concentrates close to the water points, leading to degradation of the rangelands. Access to communal water point was also found to be significant influence on respondents’ traditional rangeland&nbsp;management&nbsp;practice&nbsp;at&nbsp;10%&nbsp;significance&nbsp;level&nbsp;(p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.1).&nbsp;On&nbsp;the&nbsp;other&nbsp;hand,&nbsp;the&nbsp;result of odd-ratio indicates that, access to communal water point will increase the probability of rangeland management practice by 0.22 percent. The study recommends bases for ecologically sound and culturally appropriate indigenous rangeland management&nbsp;practices.</p> Benti Tafesse Copyright (c) 2018 Author(s) 2018-07-05 2018-07-05 7 1 62 78 10.20372/au.jssd.6.2.2018.090 Overlooked and undervalued Sector: Exploring the Experience of Female Domestic Workers in Burayu and Sebeta Towns, Oromia, Ethiopia <p style="text-align: justify;">Domestic workers provide crucial household and care services to many families and contribute to the economic development of the country. They relieve their employers of countless responsibilities and help families to manage their day-to-day stresses and demands on their time. The aim of this research was to explore the lived experiences of domestic workers in Burayu and Sebeta towns. The study employed a qualitative research approach using a descriptive research design. Eight domestic workers were selected by using snowball sampling. Domestic workers reported that lack of family support and early marriage are the major factors that force them to engage in live-in domestic work. The nature of the agreement made between domestic workers and employers was through informal and formal agreements. Supporting their family member and saving money from what they earn to meet their needs considered as the benefits of working in private home as domestic worker. Despite its benefits, working in their employer’s home has a major impact on workers’ personal autonomy, mobility and decisions about their future. They also subjected to excessive work load without any additional payment which may worsen their life. To overcome the overwhelming and demanding nature of work domestic workers used seeking social support and crying as coping strategies. It was recommended that domestic workers need legal protection just as any other employees. They must enjoy their fundamental rights to form and join a trade union for collective bargain with their employers.</p> Dereje Dugassa Shibiru Tesfaye Copyright (c) 2018 Author(s) 2018-07-04 2018-07-04 7 1 29 36 10.20372/au.jssd.6.2.2018.087