Journal of Science and Sustainable Development <p><span style="color: #000000;"><strong>Journal of Science and Sustainable Development (JSSD)</strong> is an open access peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal published by Ambo University, Ethiopia, that provides rapid publication (bi-annually) of articles in all subject areas covering,but not limited to, Natural Sciences, Agriculture, Technology and Social Sciences. The journal welcomes submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance in scientific excellence.Authors are advised to strictly follow the AuthorsGuideline as a mere deviation from the basics of the Journal format can lead to automatic rejection of the manuscript without going in depth in to it.</span></p> en-US (Alemayehu Adugna (PhD)) (Bayissa Leta Danno (PhD)) Sat, 23 Oct 2021 12:14:35 +0000 OJS 60 Prevalence and pattern of severe malaria among adults in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia: A three years retrospective study <p>Severe malaria is a protozoan disease of human caused mainly by plasmodium falciparum (P.falciparum) but sometimes by Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections. The objective was to assess the prevalence, pattern and trends of severe and complicated malaria among adults admitted to the Medical wards of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), South West Ethiopia, from May 1, 2013 to April 30, 2016. A retrospective medical record review study was conducted from May 1, 2013 to April 30, 2016 to assesses the files and registries of patients’ with severe malaria admitted to Medical wards of JUSH. The prevalence of confirmed sever and complicated malaria in JUSH from May 1, 2013 to April 30, 2016 was 2.6 % (144) out of the total admission of 5590 patients cards in the three years to JUSH medical ward. Out of the confirmed severe and complicated malaria case mortality was 0.6 %( 32) with case fatality rate was 22.2 %( 32/144). Adult severe malaria cases showed slightly declining pattern during the study period: 90 %( 58) in 2013/14, 3.82% (33) in 2014/15 and 1.64% (53) in 2015/16. Distribution of cases over months showed bimodal pattern for all of the years with the two peaks during the months of May to July and during November to January. P. falciparum accounted for 91.6% of severe malaria causative agent. Patients with co-morbid infections account 33% of cases of severe and complicated malaria. The commonest co-morbid infection was meningitis. More than 80% of the cases were presented to the hospital after 24 hours of malaria episode, which may contributed to increased case fatality rate. Delayed hospital visit was significantly associated with average annual case fatality rate of 5.32 %(15.97% for all the study years) (X2=33.75, P=0.001).This study has shown that trend of malaria admission over three years showed marked decline from 2013/14 to 2015/16. Delay in presentation to the health facility is associated with poorer prognosis, hence early recognition and treatment would decrease mortality. Though declining pattern of malaria s being observed adult severe malaria transmission was active over the studied years even at the end of the first phase of Roll Back Malaria Initiative. Therefore, the efficiency of malaria control and treatment programs should be investigated to fill gaps.</p> Asfaw Gerbi, Mohammed Hassen, Wakjira Kebede, Lemessa Debella, Mitiku Bajaro Copyright (c) 2021 Author(s) Wed, 20 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Households’ Decision to Save at Household Level: Evidence from Small holder Farmers’ of Ambo District, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia <p>Saving is an important economic growth to be studied under the purview of the economic arena on an individual as well as household basis. In a country like Ethiopia, the income standard is almost uncertain and leads to more consumption rather than saving which has now been a central problem. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of farmers’ decision to save at household level. Both primary and secondary data source were used for this study during 2018/19. Accordingly, the study was based on the survey of a total of 130 farmers covering three kebeles of Ambo district. Besides, binary logit model was used to analyse the factors affecting households’ decision to save. The results of this study indicated that education level of the household head, income of the household and land holding size had positively and significantly affected households’ decision to save. But distance from microfinance Institution had negatively and significantly affected households’ decision to save in the study area. This study recommends that in order to make micro-economic successful these factors and problems need to be taken into consideration by policy makers to encourage farmers to participate in saving.</p> Fikiru Temesgen, Lachisa Amina Copyright (c) 2021 Author(s) Wed, 20 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis Gender Roles in Beef Cattle Value Chain: In West Shewa Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia <p>Gender is an important aspect of beef cattle value chain analysis since gender relations both affect and are affected by the ways in which the value chains function. Gender issues fundamentally shape the totality of production, distribution and consumption within an economy but have often been overlooked in value chain development. Thus, understanding gender relationships and adjusting methods and messages is crucial for the full participation and benefits of all the community. The study was aimed at analyzing Gender Roles in beef cattle value chain in Toke Kutaye and Bako Tibe Districts, West Shewa Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected for the study. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data for this study were collected from 376 producers, 30 fatteners, 20 traders, 10 butchers, 12 hotels, 2 local abattoirs and 10 consumers; totally 460 respondents by using interview schedule, site visit and personal observation. Data analysis was made using descriptive and inferential statistics and gender analysis frameworks. The results of Harvard Analytical Framework showed that at the lower stage of beef cattle value chain there were contributions of all gender categories and the marketing activities of beef cattle value chain were dominated by men’s role. Men have more access to and control of resources than women along the beef cattle value chain activities. But there is a probability that both men and women have almost equal benefit from resources along the beef cattle value chain. It was concluded that men, women, boys and girls participation in marketing, access to and control of resources are not equal in beef cattle value chain. Therefore, the recommendation was empowering women by improving their access to resources and services, control over the resources and gender mainstreaming in the value chain. </p> Dabesa Wegari Obosha Copyright (c) 2021 Dabesa Wegari d Obosha Wed, 20 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Quantitative Trait Loci mapping of agronomic traits in a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) bi-parental cross <p>Although Cowpea is an important food legume with multiple benefits in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) its productivity on farmers’ fields is very low due to biotic and abiotic stresses, and by the paucity of useful trait-linked genetic markers or QTLs for agronomic traits. Hence, the objective of this study was to construct genetic linkages map of cowpea and identify regions of the genome associated with agronomic traits of cowpea in the F2 population (200 progenies) developed from a cross between a cowpea line (TVu2185) and a yard-long bean line (TVu6643). Diversity Array Technology genotyping platform was used for SNP genotyping the DNA samples. The linkage map and QTL analysis were performed using Join Map® 4.1, and MapQTL® 6 QTL mapping programs, respectively. The linkage map spanned 689 cM of the cowpea genome. Major and minor QTLs (15 in total) were detected for the agronomic traits studied on 6 of the 11 LGs in cowpea. The major seed traits related QTLs were present on LG8 along with that for pod length. The highest phenotypic variance explained (PVE) by individual QTL was 31.2% for seed length followed by 21.1% for seed number per pod on LG8. The phenotypic variance explained by all QTLs per trait ranged from 10.2% for SPW to 48% for SL. The QTLs with large effect detected for pod length and seed traits indicates that the QTLs are potential candidates for marker development and marker assisted selection in cowpea. </p> Zewdneh Zana Zate Copyright (c) 2021 Zewdneh Zana Zate Wed, 20 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants for Households’ Dependency on Natural Resources of Arsi Mountain National Park: a Case of Chilalo-Galema Block, Ethiopia <p>For sustainable environmental management, protected areas should improve the socioeconomic living conditions of local communities in addition to their envisioned goal for biodiversity conservation. The main objective of this study was to assess the determinants of households’ dependency on natural resources of Arsi Mountain National Park. In order to address the major objective of the study, data were collected from 128 sample respondents through survey instrument, two focus group discussion and eight in depth interview. Determinants for households’ dependency on natural resources of the block were analyzed by using binary logistic regression analysis model. Qualitative data were analyzed alongside quantitative data. The finding of the study revealed that adjacent households were highly dependent on natural resources derived from Chilalo-Galema block. That means, on average 55% of their annual income were derived from Chilalo-Galema block. Land holding size, age, household size, proximity to the local market and proximity to the block significantly determined their dependency. At the end, the study recommends that command and control approach of natural resources conservation (fortress conservation) will promote park- people conflict or it affects both resources users and natural resources itself; hence, managers of the park must employ a proactive approach and work with local people through addressing their socioeconomic concern.</p> Seble Fekadu Deyaso Copyright (c) 2021 Seble Fekadu Deyaso Wed, 20 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Loan Repayment Performance of Awash Saving and Credit Cooperatives Union, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia <p>This study aimed to assess loan repayment performance of Awash saving and credit cooperatives union, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. This study is delimited to loan repayment performance and loan repayment trends of Awash saving and credit cooperative union of the last ten consecutive years (2010-2019 GC). Descriptive research design was used in this study. Moreover, both quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used for triangulation purpose. Both primary and secondary data were used to address the desired research objectives. Primary data were collected through focus group discussion (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII). Whereas secondary data were obtained from annual audited financial statement of the union. The collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and linear regression analysis accordingly. The study result indicates that, though the loan performance of the union improving year after year in the study period, disparity of the amount loan planned, amount distributed and amount collected becoming wider and wider starting from 2015 G.C. Moreover, the researchers conclude that, institutional factors (lack of qualified and adequate man power) members’ factors (lack of business know how and low income) and external factors (political instability) are major hindering factors that are affecting loan repayment performance of the members. To overcome these problems, adequate and competent cooperative professional employee should be recruited for loan supervision and collections and regular training should be given for the members on credit usage and repayment.</p> Telila Eliyas Erena Copyright (c) 2021 Telila Eliyas Erena Wed, 20 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000