Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic animals in Ethiopia: Seroprevalence, risk factors, Clinical disease, isolation and genotyping: A review
Keywords:Seroprevalence, risk factor, bioassay, genotyping, domestic animals, Ethiopia
Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infectious diseases of medical and veterinary importance due to its implication in abortion and congenital disease in its intermediate hosts. In order to compile data on Toxoplasma gondii in animals in Ethiopia, published data on the seroprevalence, risk factors for infection, clinical disease, isolation and genotyping in Ethiopia were retrieved from databases of Pub Med, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Universities libraries regardless of the year of publication. No statistical method was employed in this study. The compiled review generally indicate high prevalence which varies with species of animals, diagnostic methods and across regions and areas of the country. Age, sex, management, presence of cats, altitude and herd size were identified as important risk factors in most studies. High proportions of seropositive sheep, goats, cats, chicken, and pigs harbor viable tissue cysts. The four genotypes of T. gondii found in Ethiopia so far suggest limited genetic diversity. Most publications of T. gondii infection are from wet part of the country. Environmental contamination with oocysts from cats appears to be widespread contributing for the high prevalence of infection in domestic animal. The high rate of occurrence of viable tissue cysts might constitute important food safety concerns Prevention and control methods of toxoplasmosis mainly through education, establishment of health infrastructures, capacity building, surveillance, stakeholders’ collaboration, and further large-scale studies are recommended.
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