Selected Nutritional Values and Physicochemical Properties of Traditionally Prepared Ethiopian Fresh Butter Intended for Direct Consumption
The level of selected nutritional values, physicochemical properties and metal contents of butter samples collected from Dire Enchini and Ejere Districts in West Showa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia have been investigated to ensure food safety. Properly optimized sample preparation methods and calibrated and verified analytical procedures have been employed for the analysis. The result of the study indicated that, the butter sample collected from Dire Enchini district have shown average ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate and solid not fat contents of 0.10, 82.73, 2.32, 1.18 and 4.45 %, respectively, while the corresponding values for butter sample from Ejere district were 0.13, 84.71, 1.87, 0.86 and 2.19 %, respectively. The results showed there was significant differences in fat, crude protein and solid-not-fat contents of butter from the two districts. The determined physicochemical properties of butter samples from Dire Enchini have shown the average moisture (%), Melting point (℃), Free fatty acids (as oleic) (%), titratable acidity (butyric acid) (%), peroxide value (meq/ kg), Iodine value (I2g /100g), saponification value (mg KOH/ g) and cholesterol in butter (mg/ 100 g) contents of 12.82, 34.5-35.40, 0.82, 0.28, 0.48, 3.76, 95.3 and184.13±12.19, respectively, while the corresponding values for butter sample obtained from Ejere were 11.77, 35.0-35.70, 0.62, 0.23, 0.41, 3.97, 103 and 280.88, respectively. The optimized wet digestion method for Butter sample analysis was found effective for all of the minerals as it was evaluated through the recovery experiment and a good percentage recovery range from 91 – 100 % was obtained with %RSD ≤ 12 for the minerals analyzed. The average levels of metals investigated followed the order of K > Ca > Na > Mg > Fe > Zn > Cu >Mn (mg/ Kg) in Butter sample from Dirre Enchini district. Similar order was obtained in butter sample from Ejere, except Cu > Zn. The concentrations of the metals, nutritional value and Physicochemical property of butter were found to be in a good agreement with the international standards and indicating no risk exposure of using the butter from the investigated areas.
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